Epidemiological studies forming the framework for recommending use of the a1c to diagnose diabetes have all been in adult populations. whether the cut point would be the same to diagnose children or adolescents with type 2 diabetes is an area of uncertainty (3,10). a1c inaccurately reflects glycemia with certain anemias and hemoglobinopathies..
The recommended correction of hypoglycaemia is the oral intake of approximately 15 g of glucose or equivalent simple carbohydrate when a capillary blood glucose level is <3.9 mmol/l (<70 mg/dl) . this should be repeated every 15 min until any symptoms have resolved and the blood glucose level is above 3.9 mmol/l (70 mg/dl)..
Water hardness is measured in grains; 0.064 g calcium carbonate is equivalent to one grain of hardness. water is classified as soft if it contains 1 to 4 grains, medium if it contains 5 to 10 grains and hard if it contains 11 to 20 grains. .